Microeconomics Cost Formulas

Here is a list of some of basic microeconomics formulas pertaining to revenues and costs of a firm. Remember when you’re using these formulas there are a variety of assumptions, namely, that the the firm is profit-maximizing (making as much money as they can.)

Here are total cost formulas, average variable, marginal cost, and more, (work out your own algebra to find alternatives):

Average Total Cost (ATC) = Total Cost / Q (Output is quantity produced or ‘Q’)

Average Variable Cost (AVC) = Total Variable Cost / QAverage Fixed Cost (AFC) = ATC – AVC

Total Cost (TC) = (AVC + AFC) X Output (Which is Q)

Total Variable Cost (TVC) = AVC X Output

Total Fixed Cost (TFC) = TC – TVC

Marginal Cost (MC) = Change in Total Costs / Change in Output

Marginal Product (MP) = Change in Total Product / Change in Variable Factor

Marginal Revenue (MR) = Change in Total Revenue / Change in Q

Average Product (AP) = TP / Variable Factor

Total Revenue (TR) = Price X Quantity

Average Revenue (AR) = TR / Output

Total Product (TP) = AP X Variable Factor

Economic Profit = TR – TC > 0

A Loss = TR – TC < 0

Break Even Point = AR = ATC

Profit Maximizing Condition = MR = MC

Explicit Costs = Payments to non-owners of the firm for the resources they supply.

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35 Responses to “Microeconomics Cost Formulas”

  1. MsL says:


    Need some help i need to calculate TR but i dont have the price i only have TC and Q.

    What is the formula?

  2. Jodie says:

    Thank you for the formulas!!!!!!!!!

  3. lazaro says:

    I need to find the Quantity in order to find the AVC to know if the business will continue operating or shutdown?

  4. Adam says:

    I have total cost and quantity..now hw can I know TVC and TFC?

  5. Mary says:

    Hi !
    Can you help me ?
    The demand curve for fish is D(P)= 200-5P and the supply curve S(P)=5P.
    How will I solve for q* and P*?

  6. Sayed Hamidullah says:

    thanks for the formula

  7. Abbyra2009 says:

    thank you so much for making my assignment so much easier to get through.

  8. Varun1985actuary says:

    Thanks a lot for these formulas, varun

  9. Anonymous says:

    wow thanks currently studying this for my test today

  10. Yongquer says:

    thanks for this formulas! now im sure, i can answer now my assignments!

  11. Hunain.H.Bilgrami says:

    Thanks for this formulas

  12. John says:

    thanks for the formula

  13. creelman hassan says:

    i have learnt alot from your formulars
    thanks very much
    ma exam is 2moro

  14. Mal says:

    Thank you so much ! This helped me a lot in my economics worksheet ! Tomorrow is my exam ! I would say this is much, much better than my economics sir ! :)

  15. Brandi says:

    Hello, does anyone know how to calculate Price??? is there a formula to use??

    • Kingsleyotchere says:

      brandi,since total revenue is price by quantity.u can manipulate that to arrive at your price.

      • Rleziert says:

        what do u mean u can manipulate it? if 9 is the price and 15 million is the quantity, how much in total are the buyers paying?

  16. annette says:

    please help variable input of labor. 50 workers are used average product of laboris 50. Marginal product of the 50 worker is 75. wage rate is $80 and the total cost of the fixed input is $500.

    What is th average variable cost
    What is the marginal cost
    What is the average total cost

  17. Helen says:

    how do you find out the coupn rate when you know the bond value and the coupone rate?

  18. suzie says:

    any BASIC info to help me understand introductory economics would be appreciated.

  19. suzie says:

    can you list for me the basic formulas for elasticity?

  20. barry econ says:

    Might be a trick questions in that MR = MC so in this theoretical case if you have MC then you have MR and work backwards.

  21. Nus says:

    Hi, I’ve been given the ffg infomation and need to find the optimal level of output for profit maximizatio (i.e MR=MC)

    0 100 0
    1 100 90
    2 100 170
    3 100 240
    4 100 300
    5 100 370
    6 100 450
    7 100 540
    8 100 650
    9 100 780
    10 100 930

    So far this is what I have calculated:

    TC TR MR
    100 0
    190 110 110
    440 220 110
    820 330 110
    1300 440 110
    1950 550 110
    2800 660 110
    3880 770 110
    5300 880 110
    7120 990 110
    9400 1100 110




    I still do not know how to solve for MR=MC Mathematicaly.
    Your help will be much appreciated

  22. Paul says:

    Try posting in the forum with your question.

  23. Stephan says:

    I have this problem and can not figure out how to compute. Can you help me to compute?
    Example. output (Q) is given let’s say 3, Total Revenue (TR) is 96, and total Cost (TC) is 44. I need to compute marginal revenue and average revenue functions. I can compute the average revenue, but got confused in computing marginal revenue.

    Thank you.

    • Rachel says:

      How did you calculate average function if no total cost function was given? Either way, to find marginal function from total function, simple derivate.

  24. HAJEBA says:

    You are the one where to find required knowledge in economic thinking and I will always visit your website. Thank you

  25. then says:

    If 20q + 8 is the answer then that’s just basic calculus off of 10q2 + 8q

  26. sanjay says:

    total cost function of a firm is tc = 1050 + 10qsquare + 8q find the mc of firm when the quantity produced is 15. iam unable to find the solution , mc shows the answer 20q + 8 how it is calculated pls help me.

  27. Danielle says:

    I am having trouble finding the break even point. If i have the following information how do i find it? I have the MC, AVC and AC

  28. barry econ says:

    Are you sure the solution for #1 is correct? If you insert the variable factor it’s not TP=50+6-0.5=55.50 but TP=50+6^2-0.5^3^ =

    Is it not?

  29. John Anderson says:

    Hi: I am really having a hard time calculating the total product. The formula above says:
    TP=AP X Variable Factor while
    AP=TP/Variable Factor
    So it’s like a catch22 – to calculate TP, you have to know the AP, but to calculate AP, you have to know the TP !!

    Say I have a demand function: Q=50L+6L^2+0.5L^3
    I calculated L=4

    Solution provided =
    For Variable Factor=1, TP=50+6-0.5=55.50, Thus AP=55.50 and MP=55.50 – cool !!

    But for Variable Factor=2, TP=120.00 – How? This is what I don’t understand.
    AP=TP/VF=60, and MP=Change in TP value=120-55.50=64.50

    Can you help me understand how to calculate the TP?

    Solution provided for VF=3, TP=190.50, AP=63.50 & MP=70.50
    for VF=4, TP=264.00, AP=66.00 & MP=73.50 and so on.

    Thank you very much for your help.

    Best Regards,


  30. barry econ says:

    Happy to help, glad they worked for you.

  31. Rosa says:

    you are the best, and very useful, I was having hard time calculating total cost, how to calculate actually but no website could help me beside this, you are the greastes, and thank you and keep on upgrading us,

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